Carbon Dioxide content of softdrinks

Essay by beach_bunnyHigh School, 12th gradeA, October 2007

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1.0Theory1.1Acids and basesAn acid is any chemical compound that, when dissolved in water, gives a solution with a pH less than 7.0. It is also a compound which donates a hydrogen ion (H+) to another compound (called a base).

Generally, acids have the following properties:•Taste: Acids generally have a sour taste•Touch: Strong or concentrated acids often produce a stinging feeling on mucous membranes•Reactivity: Strong acids react aggressively with or corrode many metals•Electrical conductivity: Acids, while not usually ionic compounds, are electrolytes•Acids turn moist blue litmus paper redIn chemistry, a base is most commonly thought of as a substance that can accept protons. This refers to the Brønsted-Lowry theory of acids and bases. Alternate definitions of bases include electron pair donors. Bases can be thought of as the chemical opposite of acids. A reaction between an acid and base is called neutralization. Bases and acids are seen as opposites because the effect of an acid is to increase the hydronium ion (H3O+) concentration in water, whereas bases reduce this concentration.

Some general properties of bases include:•Taste: Bitter taste (opposed to sour taste of acids and sweetness of aldehydes and ketones)•Touch: Slimy or soapy feel on fingers•Reactivity: Caustic on organic matter, react violently with acidic substances•Electric conductivity: Aqueous solutions or molten bases dissociate in ions and conduct electricity•Bases turn red litmus paper blue1.2CarbonationBubbles of carbon dioxide float to the surface of a soft drink. Carbonation occurs when carbon dioxide is dissolved in water or an aqueous solution. Effervescence is the escape of gas from an aqueous solution. The term is usually used to describe the foaming or fizzing that results from gas. This process is generally represented by the following reaction, where a pressurized dilute solution of carbonic acid in water releases gaseous carbon dioxide at decompression:In simple terms, it is the...