The Cardiovascular System

Essay by jared_rx7College, UndergraduateA+, April 2005

download word file, 6 pages 3.0 1 reviews

Cardiovascular System


lies within thorax b/w lungs in the mediastinal space

beating is palpable @ 5th intercostals space, approx 2 in. left of midline

this pulsation (arising at the apex of the heart) is termed point of maximal impulse.

Endocardium = thin, inner lining/layer

Myocardium = layer of muscle

Epicardium = fibrous, outer layer

Heart is surrounded by the pericardium

o Inner (visceral) layer is in contact with the epicardium

o Outer (parietal) layer is connected with the mediastinum

Pericardial fluid lubricates the space b/w the pericardial layers and prevents friction.

Heart is divided vertically by the septum

Atrial myocardium is thinner than that of the ventricle

Left ventricular wall is 3 times thicker than the right b/c it has the force to pump blood into the system.

Blood Flow Through Heart

1) Inferior and superior vena cavae

2) Right atrium

3) Tricuspid valve

4) Right ventricle

5) Pulmonic valve

6) Pulmonic artery to lungs

7) (from lungs) to left atrium

8) mitral valve

9) left ventricle

valves serve to keep blood flowing in forward direction

mitral and tricuspid valves are attached to chordae tendineae that prevents the eversion into the atria during ventriclar contraction

pulmonic and aortic valves (semi-lunar valves) prevent blood from regurgitating into ventricles at end of each ventricular contraction.

Blood Supply to the Myocardium

own blood supply = coronary circulation

blood flow into coronary arteries occur primarily during diastole.

In 90% of people, the AV node & bundle of His receive blood from the right coronary artery.

Most of the blood from the coronary system drains into coronary sinus, which empties into the right atrium near the entrance of the inferior vena cavae.

Conduction system

Specialized nerve tissue responsible for creating and transporting the electrical impulse or action potential.

Impulse initiates depolarization & cardiac contraction.