Chromosomal Chaos and Cancer

Essay by chautinhtriCollege, UndergraduateA+, March 2008

download word file, 3 pages 0.0

Downloaded 9 times

•Normal human cell•Aneuploid cell•Proteins and their role•The role of mitotic spindle apparatus•From normal to abnormal•Children and Cancer•CarcinogensSince 1960's scientists are trying to find a way and the actual reason for cancer. For last 30 years mutation of human gene was an ultimate theory for cancer. But, it prevails to answer important questions of cancer. Scientists of now days are focusing not on the gene mutation but they have found that chromosomal number and structure change have direct influence to cancer. "Normal" human cell is always diploid because it has 2 copies of chromosomes that make us human, but it's been proven that cells of tumors are aneudiploid which means the cell either lost or gained the whole chromosome or half of it. So, this causes the cell to produce abnormal amount of proteins that were encoded by those lost or multiplied genes. Spindle apparatus which has a major responsibility in cell division is a complex of proteins.

This also influences the enzyme work resulting in abnormal cellular structure. Mostly adults who are over age of 50 are at risk of cancer, rare yet even children get this disease. For instance, Down syndrome, Mosaic variegated aneuploidy is the popular once. Though, aneuploid embryos wouldn't survive and that's why newborns are cancer-free. There are also other things that worsen the cancer which are carcinogens. Scientists found that nonmutagenic carcinogens can cause aneuploidy. Those chemicals destroy the microtubule polymers that separate the chromosomes during the mitosis. From the other hand, some genetic syndromes and mitotic errors can kick off the carcinogenesis. The group scientists also determined that aneuploid cells reshuffle their chromosomes and phenotypes much faster than mutation can change their genes. If doctors and researchers can find foods, medications and environmental changes that damage the chromosomes, then there is...