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Colombia Colombia's conventional long form name is The Republic of Colombia. It has a republic government, with the executive branch running the government structure. The capital is Bogota. They received independence from Spain on July 10, 1810 and that is it's national holiday also. The constitution was made up in July 5, 1991. It is a country in South America. Colombia was one of three countries to emerge from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830. The other two were Venezuela and Ecuador. After a 40 year insurgent campaign to overthrow the government escalated in the 1990's, getting funded from the drug trades. Fighting and violence has been breaking out and has made neighboring countries concerned about the violence spilling over into their country.

Colombia is bordered by the Pacific Ocean, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, and the Caribbean Sea. It is the only South American country with coastlines on both the North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea.

A Colombian peso is equal to 100 centavos. The total area of Colombia is 1,138,910 sq. km. The land area is 1,038,700 sq. km. The water area is 100,210 sq. km. In size Colombia is slightly less than 3 times the size of Montana.

The climate of Colombia is mostly tropical along the coast and the eastern plains, but cooler when you get into the highlands. The terrain is flat in the coastal lowlands, central highlands, the high Andes Mountains, and eastern lowland plains. The lowest point is at the Pacific Ocean at 0 m. The highest point is Nevado del Huila at 5,750 m. Some of the natural resources are petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron, ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds, and hydropower. Colombia's current natural hazards are highlands subject to volcanic eruptions, occasional earthquakes, and periodic droughts. Some current environment issues are...