Differences between Spearman and Gardner

Essay by Shaunk2298University, Bachelor'sA+, September 2004

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The differences between Spearman and Gardner

Shaun Kelly

American Intercontinental University

The differences between Spearman and Gardner

Edward Spearman's name is almost synonymous with general intelligence, or "g" for short. He invented the first form of factor analysis, and proposed a two-factor theory of intelligence. He had sort of a math formula that said every activity involves a general factor plus a specific factor. (G + S). From these theories, he said that people who do well on intelligence tests also do well on a variety of intellectual tasks. "Vocabulary and mathematical and spatial abilities". (Wilderdom, 2003). So for example of "g", Spearman would theorize that people who score well on a verbal test have a lot of intelligence, but they are affected by their abilities to perform verbal tasks. In laments terms, if you scored well on a verbal test, you studied and have the brain capacity to understand and comprehend the material.

Howard Gardner on the other hand has a different point of view on intelligence. Instead of one main intelligence to focus on, he has seven. "Verbal, Mathematical, Musical, Spatial, Kinesthetic, Interpersonal, and intrapersonal functioning's" (Wilderdom, 2003). While these are all forms of intelligence, they function separately he argues. Gardner goes a different route than Spearman basing he theories on biological facts. "Premise 1: If it can be found that certain brain parts can distinctively map with certain cognitive functioning, then that cognitive functioning can be isolated as one candidate of multiple intelligences. Premise 2: Now it has been found that certain brain parts do distinctively map with certain cognitive functioning, as evidenced by certain brain damage leading to loss of certain cognitive function" (Washington U, 2002). These theories give a basis for multiple intelligences. Biologically, Gardner determines that the brain is the major player in the...