Disease Notes

Essay by ChewyWookHigh School, 12th grade June 2004

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Health-state of complete physical and mental wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease

Disease-condition that disturbs, or has the potential to disturb the bodies functions

Infectious disease-caused by a pathogen

Non-infectious disease-caused by a malfunction of the body

Contagious-easily spread

Non-contagious eg. Oppurtunistic infections

Pathogens-disease causing organisms

Micro-organisms-too small to be seen

Macrorganisms-can be seen with eye

Endoparasites-live in body eg worms

Ectoparasites-live outside body eg. Lice

Pathogens are parasites that cause disease

Bacteria-infect hosts eg. TB

Prions-proteins gone wrong eg. Mad cow disease

Virus-acellular molecules that invade and use cells processes for their own benefit eg. Chicken pox

Fungi-spores spores release enzymes to attack cells eg. Tinea

Protozoa-invade body to get nutrients or reproduce eg. Malaria

Parasites--cause disease by injecting substances that act on toxins eg. Tapeworm

Vectors-organism that transmits a disease form one host to another

Antigens are proteins on top of invading bodies which show that it is foreign Macrophages-detect antigens and trigger immune system

1-Line of defence-barriers-eyes, eats, mouth, digestive tract, skin, urinogenital tract,

2-Inflammation response- pus, swelling, redness, pain (histamines) heat

3-Phagocytes-engulf and destroy pathogens

T-cells-helper-trigger immune system

-Cytotoxic killer-destroy the invaders

-Suppressant-shut down immune response

-Memory cells-remember which antibodies for next time

B-cells-produce antibodies which join antigens to form antibody/antigen complex

-memory cells to stay in body

When macrophages come across an antigen it engulfs and breaks it down into pieces.

It then displays these pieces and when helper t-cells encounter this cell they produce b and t cells.

Immunization-the process in which the body develops the ability to fight diseases by producing antibodies and memory cells

Vaccination-the act of receiving a substance so that the body will develop immunity to a specific disease.

Water treatment-

Primary-screening and degritting (removal of large debris and grit)

-flocculation (mix water with chemicals to...