DNA Fingerprinting Vocabulary List.

Essay by Toga88High School, 10th gradeA+, May 2003

download word file, 1 pages 3.0

·DNA fingerprinting/profiling/typing: analysis of section of DNA that have little or no known function, but vary widely from one individual to another, in order to identify individuals

·deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA): nucleic acid that contains the sugar deoxyribose

·restriction enzyme: enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence

·gel electrophoresis: procedure used to separate and analyze DNA fragments by placing a mixture of DNA fragments at one end of a porous gel and applying an electrical voltage to the gel

·forensic science: the application of biochemical and other scientific techniques to the investigation of crime

·DNA probe: a short, single-stranded DNA molecule bound to a fluorescent dye that makes the probe visible

·Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR): technique that allows molecular biologists to make many copies of a particular gene

·non-coding sequence ("junk DNA"): regulator of gene expression during development, aide to nearby genes for making proteins, and serves as "bricks & mortar" of chromosomal structure

·length polymorphisms: variations in the physical length of a DNA molecule (present in "junk DNA")

·Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTRs): special kind of length polymorphism that come from stretches of short, identical repeat sequences of DNA

·Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) analysis: basic procedure used to isolate an individual's DNA fingerprint

·loci: specific places on chromosomes for VNTRs

·agarose: a porous, gelatinous slab

·chromosome: threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next

·gene: sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait