Eastern Way

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Korea ceased being Korea because of the annexation policy which Japan instilled upon them in 1919. Korea took on a new name called Chosen. The very term of Japanese colonialism was labeled by the Japanese inhabitants Nikkan heigo, meaning "amalgamation of Japan and Korea". But the amalgamation of Korea is not a proper term because the Japanese construction did not apply to the Korea citizens. According to Robert T. Oliver in his book called A History of the Korean People in Modern Times the Premier of Japan, Hara Kei, said that "it is the ultimate purpose of the Japanese Government in due course to treat Korea in all respects on the same footing as Japan proper." The following paragraphs below is a examination of Japanese thought concerning Korea and how their policies reflected colonialism instead of "Nikkan heigo" what they considered the amalgamation. There are three elements that come into play when looking into the Japanese envisionment for Korea.

Each of these elements were devised to manipulate and twist the Korean's people sense of national and cultural recognition. These three perceptions can be see throw the Japanese creation of a Government-General and the policies that he created concerning the educational system, land reform and policing of Korea. Instead of constructing an equality among the Japanese and Korean people the policies reflected cultural genocide.

The first element was the reestablishing of the old Confucian doctoral which was entwined on the population as a basis for moral guidelines. The Japanese wanted to extended this deeply imbedded personal ideology to reflect the Japanese-Korean relationship. Not just loyalty to ones parents, but loyalty to the Emperor of Japan was demanded. Confucian teachings were there before and taught morale ideals, religiosity and decorum. Japan wished to spread these ideas into the political realm of Korean society. Ritual practices were formulated to procreate mass public obedience to the Japanese Empire. Children in school were taught to bow east to show reverence to the Emperor of Japan. School text books were inducted to produced these more politicize Confucian moral values. The second was creating a common link between languages since the grammatical structure roughly follows the same rules. Therefore the schools took upon the adoption of Japanese as there primary language and Korean as secondary. The third element was the Japanese view on Koreans politically unstable past to demonstrate how impossible it was for the Korean people to be an independent nation. They undertook the example of the short-lived Great Han Empire to justify there presence as rightful predecessors to Korea. Basically remarking that it was Koreans destine to be ruled and that Japan would be far more advantageous ruler than China or any other foreign power. Japan seen Korea as an extension of the Japanese land, Korea was given references as "Outer Land" while Japan was considered "Inner Land" idealizing that both were in essence one. The label of Korea as a colony was avoided completely.

Since the beginning of the annexation proclamation, the government structure of Chosen formally known as Korea, was distinctive from Japan. The political structure became militaristic, by establishing a Government-General who had complete atomity over Korea and was only answerable to the Emperor of Japan. Out of the eight Government Generals seven were army generals and the other was an navel admiral. The bureaucratic structure represented more of a dictatorship other than a community which reflected Japanese and Korean collaboration. Korea was divided up into 13 provinecs,11 prefectures, 317 districts, and 4,322 towns. The 13 provinces were fulfilled by Japanese officials, who had to report directly to the Government General. The eleven prefectures and three hundred district were many filled with Japanese officials. In the Japanese first year of rule, the Japanese moved swiftly to pacify Korea. All publications, political organizations and public gatherings were suppressed. Koreans who were expected of harboring anti-Japanese inclinations were apprehended. All treaties with Korea were subsequently to be null and void. Foreign powers were to consider Korea as part of Japan. The Government-General authority was absolute, as a appointee of the emperor, he could operate without dependency on Japan. The Government-General controlled the civil and military police, issued legislative regulations, directed the judicial structure, had financial autonomy, and exercised total control of placements within his administration. He also sought endorsement of the aristocracy, by extending to seventy-five of them, annual allowances and titles within the government. Only eight of them refused and latter they were ruined economical sanctions or physical by imprisonment. With the government establishing these officials it created a easier transition into the dominance over the Korean people. Korean people were subjected under the Government-General rule which Japan gave complete commanded too. Consequently the Government-General repusented more of a dictator than a figurehead that would secure the happiness and well-being of the Korean people.

As a part of colonial policies the Japanese altered the Korean education system. The Government-General created a society for compiling Korean history, which reflected the theme that Koreans were lawless and unsystematic until Japanese occupation. The Japanese education system had long term affect upon the Korean people. The colonial school programs served several intentions. These schools were designed to produce a literate population for mass low-level future employment opportunities. Additionally to induce the engagement of exercising Japanese beliefs and ceremonies. The purpose of these programs was, however, to provided a apparatus that would bring about the circulation of Japanese culture and politics that would legitimize their control on the country. In 1906 the Japanese established government control of textbooks and curriculum in public schools. For a short time the Koreans could escape one sided political oppressions of Japanese by enrolling in private and missionary schools which allowed intellectual freedom and political atony. But by 1910 the legislation covered all private and missionary schools and preceded to slowly weeded out all institutions which didn't collaborate with Japanese thought. Although the Government-General built hundreds of school in Korea there was a discriminating mold in the education system which took place. Korean and Japanese students were segregated into two seperate school systems. Japanese system provided a better caliber of instruction, facilities, and curriculum then there Korean counter parts. The Korean schools taught it students basic literacy and limited their pursuit of academia. Japanese was taught as a first language in these schools and Korean a second language. This was done to put enthusiast on the importance of Japanese language over Korean. By 1945 only twenty percent of the Korean population received some schooling, while the general rate of literacy was below fifty percent. The main purpose of the forced Japanization of the school system upon Korea people was it eroded their cultural uniqueness and create doubtful feelings toward their own history, language and customs. Japan manipulated the Korean education system to persuaded the people that Japan was destined to be the inevitable potentate of Korea.

The Japanese land survey of 1910-1918 constituted the Japanese land-grad intentions for Korea. This survey also reflects the future intentions of Japanese upon Korean populace. The role of the Land Investigation Bureau was to prepare Korea for Japanese colonization. Traditionally in Korean history the ownership of land was ancestral and the land would remain within the family if the proper dues were paid to the bureaucracy. These funds would allow the bureaucracy to function with the government structure. After a long period of time the recognition of lands became quit apparent without any formal documenting. This governmental structure did not fit within the Japanese regime. So with the intention of manipulating the Korean people of the lively hood. The Government-General created a committee which had the power to approve or disapprove an application for land registration. This caused a very large amount of Korean farmers to lose there land. These farmers had ether no knowledge of such a survey or could not obtain adequate reputation. Most of these farmers were illiterate or could not understand Japanese terms. For those farmers who did understand and followed the procedures the applications were brought to the committee. The committee regularly decided in favor of Japanese or pro-Japanese Korean Landlords. Only major land owners were able to keep their rights of ownership. The Land system was a problem before the Japanization of Korea. It widened the gap between income levels and social class status. The fact of foreign imperialism simply made the Land system a national concern. Even without the reclassification of the Korean land system by the Japanese, the dissatisfaction of the population of the inequity of land would still be a problem until it was resolved by some type of land reform.

Policing policies, procedures and judiciary system provided the back bone of the Japanese dominance over the Korea populace. Polices policies allowed them to influence and oversee all aspects of colonial life. Police powers included the involvement in politics, education, religion, morals, health and public welfare, and even tax collection. The police were also allowed to be the judge and jury to the Korean citizens. This granted the police force the right to decree, pass sentence, and administer discipline for minor infractions. Even the Yi dynasty whipping laws were kept in place to enact only for Korean lawbreakers. The police force consisted of lower class Koreans normally from the norther provinces. They mainly joined to escape their lower social status because the police force allowed the ability for them to rise in social stature. But the Korean police officers only obtained lower levels that were subordinate to a Japanese officer. The police system structure resembled a pyramid high hierarchy strucuture with the Japanese consuming the high positions while Korean (about half of the police force) were appointed to the lower levels. The brutality and prejudice of the police force lead to Korean against Korea. This resentment was caused from the willingness of the Korean police to repress there own country men for Japanese interests.