European Expansion beyond territorial borders between 1450 and 1650

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Chapter 16

1.Discuss 2 factors that enabled Europeans to expand beyond their borders from 1450 to 1650.

The two main factors that allowed the Europeans to expand were technological breakthroughs and government funding for these trips and support.

The Europeans technological advancements allowed for the arming of newer more maneuverable ships. Cannons and faster ships that required less people to man and instead rely on wind power, became a great change in the way the rough choppy ocean waters were explored. Most ships were narrow opened boats called galleys, these ships manned by convicts or slaves at the oars were not made for rough sea water. A newer ship requiring less crew for defense and for maneuvering was created. This ship was known as a caravel. This ship was small light and had 3 sailing masts to give it wind power. While slower than a galley, it was highly maneuverable, fitted with a cannon this ship could easily dominate other ships.

Other technological developments included the development of the astrolabe an instrument developed by muslim navigators used to determine the altitude of the sun and other celestial bodies which allowed them to position themselves on a map. Sea charts containing newer information such as distances, sea depths, and geography led to better exploration and less chances of being lost at sea.

Government funding was a major role in the expansion of Europe. Without funding for such trips there would be no exploration. The cost of such trips would be too costly and simply could not be afforded without city/state help. Government funding was provided because of many different reasons. A main reason was the desire to Christianize Muslims and pagan peoples. A "fanatic zeal" for converting the muslims to Christianity and other religious objectives became reasons for funding.