Explain the basis of the Jacobite movement in Scotland

Essay by geoffrey325University, Master'sA, November 2002

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The term Jacobite is taken from the Latin word Jacobus, meaning James, so Jacobites are the people committed to the return of the Stuarts in the original form of James VII and II. Jacobitism is a term that brings a myriad of images with it. Admiration, glamour and nationalism to name a few, but what was Jacobitism and why did it seem to capture the imagination of so many people? To try and discover this, one must look at the roots and the basis of this movement.

According to Bruce Lenman , "Mary (Queen of Scots) was the ancestress of all the Jacobite Pretenders." This one statement indicates how far back the Stuart line goes. The rule of the Stuarts began with James VI of Scotland, James I of England who was Mary Queen of Scots son. Queen Elizabeth died in 1603, and James took over from her. James made many enemies during his reign, including the infamous Guy Fawkes.

James also passed an act of parliament in 1611 to have Latin Bibles translated into English.

In 1625 Charles I came to the throne and married the Roman Catholic Henrietta Maria. Charles was thought to be trying to introduce Catholic ideas into England, and matters came to a head in 1642 when he tried to curb parliamentary powers and extend his own. Civil war erupted and Oliver Cromwell took the king prisoner in 1646. Charles I was executed in 1649 and Cromwell became Lord Protector and ruled until he died in 1658. His son Richard took over, but in 1660 the son of Charles I was summoned from his home in France, and crowned Charles II. The restoration of Charles II was declared the new beginning in Scotland. It was believed that the king would acknowledge former loyalties because...