Essay by v_valentin91High School, 10th gradeA+, October 2003

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Fascism is a form of counter-revolutionary politics that first arose in

the early part of the twentieth-century in Europe. It was a response

to the rapid social upheaval, the devastation of World War I, and the

Bolshevik Revolution. Fascism is a philosophy or a system of

government the advocates or exercises a dictatorship of the extreme

right, typically through the merging of state and business leadership,

together with an ideology of aggressive nationalism. Celebrating the

nation or the race as an organic community surpassing all other

loyalties. This right-wing philosophy will even advocate violent

action to maintain this loyalty which is held in such high regards.

Fascism approaches politics in two central areas, populist and

elitist. Populist in that it seeks to activate "the people" as a whole

against perceived oppressors or enemies and to create a nation of

unity. The elitist approach treats as putting the people's will on one

select group, or most often one supreme leader called El Duce, from whom

all power proceeds downward.

The two most recognized names that go

along with Fascism is Italy's Benito Mussolini and Germany's Adolf


The philosophy of Fascism can be traced to the philosophers who argue

that the will is prior to and superior to the intellect or reason.

George Sorel, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Georg Hegal are main

philosophers who's beliefs and ideologies greatly influenced the shaping

of Fascist theory. Sorel (1847-1922) was a French social philosopher

who had a major influence on Mussolini. Sorel believed that societies

naturally became decadent and disorganized. This decay could only be

slowed by the leadership of idealists who were willing to use violence

to obtain power. Nietzsche (1844-1900) theorized that there were two

moral codes: the ruling class ( master morality) and the oppressed

class (slave morality). Nietzsche believed...