Essay by saebinHigh School, 11th gradeA, October 2014

download word file, 3 pages 0.0

Bailey P. 590-606: The Great West and the Agriculture Revolution (1865-1896)

1890: the Great West made into four states/territories of Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, and "Indian Territory," or Oklahoma

Many pioneers sought the land

Land transformed rapidly

The Clash of Cultures on the Plains

Native Americans vs. white pioneers

Cheyenne and Sioux changed into nomadic traders and deadly buffalo hunters

White intruders gave deadly diseases to Native Americans, hunted buffalo

Conflicts between two intensified

Fed. Gov. tried to pacify Plains Indians with treaties at Ft Laramie 1851 and Ft Atkinson 1853, marked beginning of reservation system in West

Each tribe would have boundaries, attempt to separate

1860s: Fed. Gov. herded Indians into smaller confines, "Great Sioux Reservation" in Dakota and Indian Territory in Oklahoma, many southern Plains tribes forced

Indians surrendered land if left alone and provided w/ food, clothing, etc

Federal Indian agents corrupt, gave surrendered Indians poor supplies

Army troops mostly immigrants, 1/5 black (called Buffalo Soldiers by Indians)

Receding Native Population

Sand Creek, Colorado, 1864: whites massacre Indians

1866: Fetterman massacre in Wyoming, not a single white survivor, protect Bozeman trail

Ft Laramie Treaty (1868), gov abandons Bozeman trail

Indians wipe out Custer & army when they invade Sioux reservation for gold

Nez Perce Indians in northeastern Oregon won fight against whites in 1877 after they tried to herd them onto a reservation

Believing they won, were actually taken to Kansas instead of Idaho

40% died from disease, rest returned to Idaho

Apache tribes of Arizona and New Mexico, difficult to defeat, forced into Mexico

Surrendered after Apache women exiled to Florida

Became successful farmers in Oklahoma

Fire-and-sword policy of whites shattered Indians

Indians were ignored

RR, disease, and extermination of buffalo led doom of Indians

Bellowing Herds of Bison

Buffaloes called "hunchback cows" by Spanish

Provided food and clothes for Indians

Still thrived after Civil War

RR building caused bison massacres, almost extinct

Shot for hide and fun

End of the Trail

Sympathy for Indians increased

Humanitarians wanted to treat Indians kindly and persuade them to "walk the white man's road"

Others wanted containment and punishment

None respected Indian culture

Christian reformers wanted Indians to become like whites

1884: fed gov outlawed Sun Dance

Battle of Wounded Knee in 1890: army stopped Dakota Sioux Sun Dance, many Indians killed

Dawes Severalty Act of 1887: dissolved many tribes as legal entities, wiped out tribal ownership of land, set up individual Indian family heads with 160 free acres

If Indians behaved like "good white settlers" they would get full title of holdings and citizenship in 25 years

Full citizenship granted to all Indians in 1924

Remaining land sold to RR and whites, proceeds used by fed gov to educate and civilize Indians

1879: Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania, motto "kill the Indian and save the man"

1890s: gov expanded schools, sent "field matrons" to reservations to teach Indian women sewing, chastity, hygiene

Dawes Act tried to make individualists out of Indians, removed their land

Indian Reorganization Act ("Indian New Deal") of 1934 tried to restore Indian culture

Indian population started to rise under new fed policies

The Plains Indians

Preserved much of their ancestral culture today, despite white invasion

Each tribe of Plains Indians spoke diff.

language, practiced diff. religion, formed own gov.

Communication between diff tribes was sign language

Men great at hunting, women great at farming

Horses from Spanish conquistadors in 16th century revolutionized Indian society

European invasion caused lack of land for Indians

Tiny reservations, no use for the horse

Mining: From Dishpan to Ore Breaker

Conquest of Indians and RR gave life to mines

California and then Colorado

"Fifty-niners" in Nevada

"Helldorados" aka boomtowns ended as ghost towns when gold diggers left

Big business was mining industry

Mining attracted population and wealth, and advertised Wild West

Women worked by running boardinghouses or prostitutes

Began to have equality in the west before the east

Mining helped finance Civil War, RR, intensified conflict between white and Indian

Silver and gold allowed Treasury to resume specie payments in 1879

Injected silver issue into American politics

"Silver Senators" represented Western people, promoted interest of silver miners

Added to American folklore and literature

Beef Bonanzas and the Long Drive

Cattle industry became huge after RR built

Refrigerator cars

"long drive"- cowboys took cattle from south to north

Barbed wire (built by homesteaders and sheepherders), harsh winters, overexpansion, and overgrazing affected cowboys and cattle

Breeders learned to fix these problems and organize

Wyoming Stock0Growers' Association controlled state and legislature

Cowboys aka Knights of the Saddle, became part of American folklore

Many were black

Farmers' Frontier

Homestead Act of 1862 allowed settler to acquire up to 160 acres of land by living for 5 years, improving it, and paying a fee of $30

Public land given away to fill up spaces and provide stimulus to family farm ("backbone of democracy")

Act proved as a hoax for land not suitable for farming

Many corporations took the good land first

RR companies persuaded many to buy land

West proved to be fruitful instead of desert

John Wesley Powell claimed west land unsuitable for farming b/c little rain, need massive irrigation

Droughts caused "dry farming," which later caused the Dust Bowl

Grains and other drought-resistant plants

Barbed wire, perfected by Joseph F. Glidden 1874, solved fences on prairies

Irrigation with help of dams and rivers, projects financed by government

Far West Comes of Age

Great West population grew

Many states added to Union, except Oklahoma, New Mexico, Arizona

Oklahoma became a state when people started to enter before the gov. made available to settlers (Sooners)