Essay by Serenity__1College, UndergraduateA, March 2009

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Application and Description: The application I have chosen this week is DNA Fingerprinting, not to be mistaken for a common fingerprint that you would normally think of. DNA fingerprinting is an application requiring lab work. Six steps are involved in the complete processing: first, DNA must be retrieved from the subject, like a hair or skin, even blood, and then certain enzymes called restriction enzymes, are used for segmentation of the DNA and arranged by size using the gel electrophoresis technique. After the previous step is complete, the cut DNA parts are moved to a sheet made of nylon. The sheet is moved to lay on the results of the electrophoresis technique and soaks overnight. Probes, usually colored or radioactive, are added to the nylon sheet from Step 3, to get a pattern which is technically, the fingerprint. The fingerprint, in the final stage, is assembled simultaneously using the probes from Steps 4 & 5, which can then be compared to view samples and determine if they belong to the same individual.

Examples: The applications of DNA biotechnology vary, depending on the goals of those who use it (Audesirk, 2008, p. 254). DNA fingerprinting is an application used for various reasons. A fingerprint is identical for all cells, tissues and organs of a cell nuclei of all living things and cannot be changed by any way possible (Betsch, 1994). Fingerprinting is used to establish identity, a technique to determine if genetic material can be traced back to an individual; scientists have been able to distinguish identity from the 1% DNA difference in all individuals, the other 99% is identical, with the exception of identical twins. Another common use is for heredity. Using the arrangement of base pairs, patterns of the fingerprint of a child and adult can be compared to...