Health Research and Designs

Essay by KIMONGUniversity, Bachelor'sA, September 2014

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Running Head: DESIGNS 1


Health Research and Designs

Kimberly Mongold

HPR 460 Analysis of Health Research

Instructor: Sarah Howell

September 07, 2014

Health Research and Designs

This paper is in regard to a cross-sectional study that was used to estimate the prevalence of tobacco consumption and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in private cars, commercial vehicles and taxis in the city of Barcelona in Spain (Curto, A., Martínez-Sánchez, J., & Fernández, E. (2011). "Cross sectional studies are the best way to determine prevalence and are useful at identifying associations that can then be more rigorously studied using a cohort study or randomised controlled study. Although they are quick and easy, they do not allow for the distinction between cause and effect" (Mann,C.J., 2003). Although most cross sectional studies are done using questionnaires, in this case the use observation to collect their data. The purpose of this study was to research the health effects from exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke in in private cars, commercial vehicles and taxis.

The sample size was 2442 private cars, commercial vehicles and taxis on 40 public roads. There were two main variables, total tobacco consumption ,either by the driver or the passenger, and SHS exposure. This study provided an estimation of smoking in some types of vehicles and highlighted the need for public health measures that would be aimed at reducing tobacco consumption in private cars, especially in the presence of children, as well as the enforcement of

measures to control smoking in commercial vehicles and taxis (Curto, A., Martínez-Sánchez, J., & Fernández, E. (2011).

The hypothesis for this study is that the exposure to secondhand smoke is more prevalent in vehicles. I feel that they used observation for this study because by observing the behavior of the subject without interaction with the subject...