Introduce the discipline of robotics. Divide the broad field of robotics into several subdomains and briefly explain and comment about each of them.

Essay by BaroudehCollege, UndergraduateA, March 2006

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Robotics is the science of designing and constructing robots. Robots are mechanical devices that perform complex tasks autonomously or under partial human supervision. They commonly substitute humans in performing tasks of hazardous, accurate, or redundant nature.

In the last couple of decades, the rapid advancements in technologies such as electronics and software led to the vast expansion of the robotics domain. Nowadays applied robotics is divided into three main categories. The most common robots are industrial robots used in various manufacturing lines across the globe. Deep sea and space exploration missions also benefit to a great extant from these mechanical beings. Last but not least, nanorobotics is the most recent field of study in robotics, involving medical and biological research.

Industrial robotics is the one of the "primitive" sectors in robotics. The initial concept is the result of the European industrial revolution that occurred in the 19th century, but the actual implementation began in the early 1960's.

Industrial robots range from simple static mechanical arms, to programmable, dynamic, and intelligent mechanical entities. They are used at a large scale in manufacturing lines to perform redundant tasks such as welding, and spray painting. The most famous industry to invest in industrial roboti0cs is the automotive industry.

Deep sea and space exploration robotics was able to take the "human digital eye" where no man has gone before. This domain focuses primarily on developing highly mobile and agile aquatic, spatial, and ground probes to be used in the exploration of hostile and unreachable territory. Unmanned aquatic probes are used to explore seas at depths that aren't accessible to regular human piloted submarines. The greatest achievement of this sector of robotics is by far the exploration of distant alien planets. The most famous and successful unmanned exploration vehicle is, without any doubt, NASA's "Mars...