Management Functions

Essay by onglt1 May 2004

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"Management Functions is manager's work activities of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling." (Robbins, 2001,p10) Managers create and keep up an internal environment, commonly called the organization. A manager's job consists of planning, organizing, leading, controlling the resources of the organization. These resources include people, jobs or positions, technology and equipment, materials and supplies, information, and money. In this presentation, talking about one part of management functions : planning.

Definition of Planning:

"Planning includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing plans to activities."(Robbins,2001,p10) It prepares the organization for the future. Planning often referred to as the "first" function of management, because planning lays the groundwork for all the other functions of management. (Donkin, 1999,P34) Planning is a continual process that involves determining all the actions that include what should be done, by whom, where, when, and how.

Process of Planning:

Planning contains three steps:

1. Which goals should be pursued? (G.R.Jones,


This is based on investigate conditions of action, according to the probably result of opportunity which are provided by the variable environment, and then deciding a target of organization in certain period in future.

2. How should the goal be attained? (G.R.Jones, 2000,P9)

After step1, determining and evaluating alternatives, constructing a list of possible courses of action. Selecting the best course of action to making.

3. How should resources be allocated? (G.R.Jones, 2000,P10)

It is analyzing the present position and resources available to achieve objectives.

However, Peter Capezio has different opinion for make planning:

(Peter Capezio, 2002)

1. Define issues and understand trends related to your basic goal.

(E.g., goal may be to develop a part master plan)

Gather background information from:

stakeholders - interest groups, staff

past plans - goals achieved?

trend analysis - activity patterns, age, attitudes

This point is most same to Jone...