What is managment?

Essay by onetenUniversity, Bachelor's April 2006

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There is no one definition for the term management. However, Fayol (1916) defined the term management as;

"To manage is to forecast and plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control." Mc Ilwee.T and Roberts I, (1991): p.g117

Management is not homogeneous and is undertaken at all levels of the organisation, as it is an integrating activity. Managers have to manage in order to achieve the overall objectives and strategy of the firm. All firms are seeking effective managers, and the quality of management is a key element of business success. In this assignment, the responsibility of management is going to be addressed.

Henri Fayol (1961) introduced four managerial roles and these were planning, organising, commanding. Coordinating and controlling.

Organizing being responsible four jobs and tasks being carried out by individuals. Commanding- giving orders and instructions and expecting them to be carried out. Coordinating all activities are arranged and adjusted in time and situation to ensure smooth running.

Controlling- involves directing, inspecting and regulating work. Planning determines in advance, what should be accomplished and how it should be accomplished. (Bounds G, Yorks L, Adams M, Ranney G, 1994)

However Fayol has been criticised by Mintzberg as it provides only vague managerial objectives. As an alternative Mintzberg proposes ten roles. Three interpersonal roles-figurehead (social activities), liaison (communicating internally and externally),and leadership. Three informational roles- monitor, disseminator (passing information to subordinates), spokesman (passing information externally) and four decisional roles-entrepreneur (risk taker), disturbance, handler, resource allocator and negotiator. The ten roles mentioned are not easily isolated in practice but form an integrated whole. (Betts.P, 1989)

An important and integral part of management is the role of supervisors.

"The supervisor is usually regarded as being the first of the management hierarchy of an organisation. Although the role varies between organizations,