New England: Family and Dissension - Study Notes

Essay by thekingandqueen January 2009

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1. How did Indians and Puritans turn the land into commodities?-Indians were hunting beavers for beaver pelts-in order to trade with the Europeans-Europeans cutting down trees-trading with English-turned their environment into commodities → led to its depletion2. Why did Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson challenge the Puritan orthodoxy?-Williams --> wanted to spread his own beliefs-separatist --> break from England (convinced that England is so corrupt – Pilgrims) – publicly criticizes the government of Massachusetts bay-said that the king had no right to grant land owned by the Indians-Puritans need to purchase land from Indians-wanted a strict separation of church and state-in MA religion determines economic and political policies-only Church members could vote and only Church members could be in government, the Church is heavily invested in secular matters-politics tends to corrupt individuals --> if there is a connection between church and state the church is going to become corrupt too-advocated religious toleration-let people worship the way they want and make certain that politics does not influence it-all of these against Puritan church and the state-is banned (“warned out”) and purchases land from Indians (creates Rhode Island)-Hutchinson --> made a logical conclusion from the Puritan doctrine of predestination-if God already determined who would be saved before they were born then it was unnecessary for Puritans to do good works in order to prepare for saving grace-critical of the Puritan religion --> convinced a lot of the leaders of Ma colony were not truly, not truly super religious figures whose authority she did not accept-merchants liked Anne Hutchinson --> don’t like the fact that the government and Church restricts their ability to make a profit-gathered a lot of people that are critical of the strict rule – considered a powerful person-put on trial --> said that God spoke to her and said that he would punish her persecutors-Puritans believe that divine revelations stopped in the Old Testament-convicted of Antinomianism – she and her family are kicked out-moved to Westchester, eventually she and her family are killed by Indians-civil war also known as the Puritan Revolution-Oliver Cromwell (puritan) raises an army and eventually executes the king --> puritans took over England-becomes head of state – seems to be a sign (God sending you back to England)-Cromwell doesn’t call them back, offers religious toleration-have no desire to go back to England because of the religious toleration – the Puritans completely intolerant of religion (only one way of worshipping)-in America for good-1650s decline in Church membership --> decline becomes serious enough where the Puritans have to offer a Half-way Covenant (says that if your parents are church members so are the children)-in order to be a Church member would have to publicly testify your religious conviction & cross-examined to make sure that your beliefs are true-children did not have that kind of intensity-orthodoxy of community is being broken down3.

Why did the Pequot War start and what was the outcome of the war?-the Europeans were in conflict over who would have authority over the Connecticut River valley-tension among the Indians over who would trade with the Europeans-Connecticut and Massachusetts wanted to dominate the Pequot’s land-the result was that the Pequot tribe was defeated and then in 1638 declared dissolved-Connecticut then established its dominance over the Pequot land-Puritans were obsessed with controlling their family (including how they raise their children)-the father was dominant-children had to be totally obedient-Calvinists – idea believe in original sin – thought that babies were born with sin --> had to get it out of them-parents thought that it was their obligation to drag the sin out of the body-was a high infant mortality rate --> even though health conditions are better than in England-periodically there were epidemics that would wipe out a lot of the population-parents would constantly warn their children that they could die at any moment-would take them to cemeteries to show them-wanted total control of their children--> babies would be bundled (highly restrict movement of the arms and legs)-mortality rates -->; during epidemic years (much of 17th to 18th) -->71 per 1,000 & late 18th century 100 people per thousand-1677 and 1678 smallpox epidemicBibliography:Making a Nation (textbook)