A&P Chapter: Test Answers to various questions accompanied by sources

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Question 1

Addison's disease is a severe or total deficiency of the hormones made in the adrenal cortex, caused by the destruction of the cortex. Classical Addison's disease results from a loss of both cortisol and aldosterone secretion due to near total or total destruction of both adrenal glands.

The symptoms which may have lead to the diagnosis of this condition are, a chronic, steadily worsening fatigue due to the slowly progressive loss of cortisol and aldosterone secretion, a loss of appetite, and some weight loss. Blood pressure is low and falls further when a person is standing, producing lightheadedness. Dehydration and hypotension are common due to nausea, sometimes with vomiting, and diarrhea. The muscles are weak and often go into spasm. There are often emotional changes, particularly irritability and depression. Sodium levels drop thus, a craving for salty foods is common. Plasma glucose and potassium levels rise Finally, the increase in ACTH due to the loss of cortisol will usually produce a darkening of the skin that may look like an inappropriate tan on a person which feels very sick.

Sources: Text page 544


Question 2

No immediate danger is present, the major concern would be breast enlargement and impotence for the young man. Prolactin is produced by the lactotropes and stimulates milk production from the breasts after childbirth to enable nursing and can affect sex hormone levels from the ovaries in women and the testes in men. It is secreted in response to the hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones. The prolactin-releasing hormone is unknown, but is thought to be serotonin. PRH causes prolactin synthesis and release. Prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH) is a neurotransmitter dopamine which prevents prolactin secretion. However cranial diabetes insipidus (CDI) is characterized by polyuria and polydipsia, due to deceases secretion of ADH by the neurosecretory...