Phobias and Addictions

Essay by star5144University, Bachelor's June 2014

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Phobias and Addictions Paper

Conferring to Kowalski & Westen (2011) "The concept that learning is adaptive and shapes behavior, forms the fundamental concepts of the behaviorist perspective." These conceptions may be acknowledged as operant, classical, and associative learning. These approaches are suggested to be similar, but they have contrasting steps towards how behavior can be educated.

These approaches are frequently known as classical learning, operant learning, and associative learning. These approaches may sound similar, but they have slightly differentiated steps towards how behavior can be learned. Operant and classical learning styles can help a person stay positive within a society. Two concepts are known worldwide to also have negative impacts on a person's emotional and physical state, phobias and addictions.

Feeling uncomfortable, or feeling fear about something, may mean you may bear a phobia. Conferring to Merriam-Webster (2013) "Phobia is defined as an exaggerated usually inexplicable and illogical fear of a particular object, class of objects, or situation."

During the beginning of a life phobias may not be present, but they may be learned throughout a period of time. A stimulus can be joined together with an opposing stimulus that can change the original response, this can happen when looking at phobias with classical conditioning. An example of this can be arachnophobia, fearing spiders. Comparing this to Pavlov's dog experiment, the spider has no knowledge of fear through itself. For here, another stimulus must be present in order for classical conditioning to occur. In Pavlov's experiment, the dog's second stimulus was food was added to the sound of the bell, in order to make the dogs start drooling. The dogs would hear the bell, and start to drool, and know it was time to be fed. When it comes to the fear of spiders, an individual suffering from arachnophobia only...