Political Science

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Women¡¦s Movements Women¡¦s movements project a vision of a new social order in which they propose that the gender equality would fundamentally change current approaches to social organization. According to O¡¦Brien, ¡§many forms of women¡¦s activism are organized around struggles for democracy, national self-determination, environmental protection and human rights.¡¨ And what does he mean by that? ¡P Democracy ¡V Indexes of legal and economic equality of women in society and marriage; and ¡P National self-determination ¡V Access and achievement in education; ¡P Environmental protection ¡V Improvement in health; ¡P Human rights ¡V Measures of women¡¦s empowerment (percentage of women in parliament, year when women earned the right to vote).

Pursuing women¡¦s interests in the international arena ¡P The focus of many NGOs is action, developing programs and institutions to improve the daily lives of women in their communities.

¡P ¡§What has become very clear is that what women need is access, not subsidies.

They need opportunities, not paternalism¡¨ ¡P The four UN conferences on women have encouraged a tendency to assume that women¡¦s movements are products of modernization and development. These conferences certainly helped to consolidate women¡¦s movements in many countries.

Women¡¦s movements and alternative economics The four UN Conferences on Women (Mexico, 1975; Copenhagen, 1980; Nairobi, 1985; Beijing, 1995) have gathered women from every region of the wolf in presenting to the President of the World Bank a petition calling on the Bank to fully implement the Platform for Action and to expand NGO participation in Bank activities. Here are some specific demands: ¡P Increase participation of grassroots women in economic policy making.

¡P Institutionalize a gender perspective in the Bank's policies and programs.

¡P Increase Bank investments in women's health services, education, agriculture, land ownership, employment, and financial services. Investments should ensure greater access to and control over these key resources by the poor, especially women.

¡P Increase the number and racial and ethnic diversity of women in senior management positions within the World Bank.