Essay by mike111111111High School, 10th gradeB, September 2014

download word file, 7 pages 0.0

Downloaded 4 times

The Open-Field System .Three field rotations helped keep fields fertile traditional village rights reinforced traditional patterns of farming. Peasants were exploited in a number of ways, with those in Eastern Europe generally the worst off. The Agricultural RevolutionThe use of more complex systems of crop rotation increased the amount of land under cultivation. Grain crops were alternated with nitrogen-storing crops. The open-field system was ended by "enclosing" the fields, particularly in England. The enclosure movement meant an end to common lands and to the independence of the rural poor who relied on them to survive. The Leadership of the Low Countries and EnglandPrior to the agricultural revolution, Holland was already the most advanced country in Europe in many areas. By the mid-seventeenth century intensive farming was well established throughout the Netherlands. One important Dutch advantage was a very dense population. The English were adept at learning from the Dutch. Jethro Tull gained fame in experimental agriculture and animal husbandry.

By the mid-eighteenth century, English agriculture was in the process of a radical transformation. Half of all English land was enclosed by 1700. By 1700 a distinctive pattern of landownership and production existed in England. Enclosure marked the emergence of market-oriented estate agriculture and of a landless rural proletariatThe Beginning of the Population ExplosionLimitations on Population GrowthFamine, disease, and war were the usual checks on growth. The New Pattern of the Eighteenth CenturyFewer deaths occurred, in part due to the disappearance of the plague. Advances in medicine did little to decrease the death rate. Improved sanitation promoted better public health. An increase in the food supply meant fewer famines and epidemics. The Putting-Out SystemThe two main participants in the putting-out system were the merchant capitalist and the rural worker. Merchants loaned, or "put out," raw materials to workers who processed the...