Proteins and their uses in the cell

Essay by thejoounitHigh School, 11th gradeA, June 2007

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Proteins are large complex molecules which are major building blocks of all living organisms. Proteins are organic molecules. Enzymes are a type of protein which acts as a catalyst within reactions.

Proteins are made up of amino acids. The structure of proteins are broken down into several categories. First is primary structure, which is the sequence of amino acids within the protein. The amino acids are held together by peptide bonds, in which the amino group bonds to the carboxyl group, and are bonded using dehydration synthesis. This sequence is determined by the DNA. Second is the secondary structure, which is some basic common shapes that are found within a protein. The alpha helix and beta sheet are the two main examples of this. There can be many of both of these within a protein. Tertiary structure can’t be described as a single shape, it is basically a glob.

Tertiary structure is the shape of the single protein. The tertiary structure can not be estimated because there are so many ways it could fold. Folds are determined by attraction between molecules within different amino acids. Sometimes two proteins combine, the structure of scenario is called quaternary structure. The shape of the protein dictates its function. Proteins can change there shape, such as enzymes, which slightly alter their active site to fit the substrate.

Proteins are made up of amino acids, which the sequence of is determined by the codons of the DNA. A codon is a group of three bases of DNA which code for a specific amino acid. The amino acids make up a polypeptide chain, forming the protein. The section of DNA that is needed is unwound and read by RNA polymerase, which makes messenger RNA. The mRNA has its introns removed and is sent out...