Psychological effect

Essay by lilibumxCollege, UndergraduateA+, November 2013

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Compare or contrast the following theories on human development:

Psychosexual Theory of development by Freud, Sigmund

Psychosocial Development by Erik Erikson

Cognitive Development by Jean Piaget


Freud theorized that the core of personality is formed before age 6 in a series of psychosexual stages. Each stage focuses on a different sexually excitable zone of the body, or erogenous zones. The way the child learns to fulfill the sexual desires associated with each stage becomes an important component of the child's personality. Failure to pass through these stages in the normal manner is the cause of various psychosexual disturbances and character disorders. Freud believed that erotic childhood urges have lasting effects on development.

He theorized that many adult personality traits can be traced to fixations, the unresolved conflict or emotional hang up caused by overindulgence or by frustration. In fixation, the individual behaves according to the characteristics of a particular psychosexual stage of childhood.





Oral Stage

First years of life

Oral Dependent Personality

Most of the individual's pleasure comes from stimulation of the mouth and lips. If the child is overfed or frustrated, oral traits may be created.

Frustrations later in the oral stage may cause aggression, often in the form of biting. Oral aggressive adults who exploits others like to argue.

Anal Stage

2-3 years

Anal-Retentive and Anal Expulsive

The child's attention shifts to process of elimination. Hence, stimulation shifts from the mouth then to anus. The demand for toilet training conflicts with the child's instinctual pleasure in having bowel movement at will.

The child can gain approval or express rebellion or aggression by "holding on" or "letting go".

Phallic Stage

4-6 years

Phallic Personality through Oedipus Complex and Electra Complex

The focus of pleasure shifts to...