The Song Dynasty

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Although the Song dynasty did not develop a particularly strong military capacity, it benefited from a remarkable series of economic development. Agricultural, technological, industrial, and commercial developments changed China into the economic powerhouse of Eurasia.

Song Taizu was the emperor and the founder of the Song dynasty. Originally his name is Zhao Kuangyin. He started his career as a junior military officer as the most powerful warlords. In 960 his troops proclaimed him as emperor because of good reputation. In addition, he launched a mutiny at Chenqiao, succeeded the throne, and established the Song dynasty. After the establishment, Taizu placed the national capital in Kaifeng. Next, he launched series of wars and managed to unite the administration of the South China after thirteen years. Before his death, Taizu conquered the Northern Han Dynasty and ended the separated situation for the previous 50 years. Finally, he reunited China after the fall of the Tang dynasty.

The Song dynasty is known for its economic. The accomplishments were due to the policies adopted when the Song dynasty was established. The foundation of economic development in Song China was a surge in agricultural production. In Vietnam, the fast-ripening rice was introduced. It enabled cultivators to harvest two crops per year. Soon the fast-ripening expanded the supply of food.

Chinese cultivators adopted improved cultural techniques to increase their productivity. They controlled oxen and water buffalos to help prepare land for cultivation. In addition, they made use of heavy plows and organized extensive irrigation systems. Artificial irrigation extended cultivation to new lands.

The population growth increased rapidly. Between 600 and 1200 C.E., the expansion reached 45 to 115 million. Increased food supplies stimulated the growth of cities. Later in the Song dynasty, Hangzhou became the capital. In the late thirteenth century, it has more than one...