Sumerian and Nile Valley civilizations and the comparison between both.

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The ancient civilizations of the Nile Valley and Sumer are considered to be the beginning of life in their respected regions. The following essay will provide a look into the similarities between these two great societies.

The Nile Valley civilization began as early as early as the Paleolithic Age, and a Neolithic culture was formed there around 6000 B.C. By about 3800 B.C. the people of this region began to take steps toward creating an actual civilization. The people discovered how to make copper, tin, and its alloy, bronze. The pottery wheel is believed to be a product of this era. By about 3000 B.C., scientists believe the people began using hieroglyphics as a form of writing. At first, hieroglyphics were carved on slate and ivory, but this was a long and strenuous process that required large amounts of time. Then they discovered that they could use a plant that grew in the marshes called papyrus to write on.

Over the centuries, strong leaders united to the regions into two kingdoms called Upper and Lower Egypt. This was the first instance of government, as the rulers of these two kingdoms were kings, creating a monarchy. Around 3100 B.C., the ruler Menes united the two kingdoms into one. The people obeyed, believing the rulers to be gods. It is for this reason the pharaohs (meaning great house) served as judges, high priests, and generals in the armies. The rulers still were required to look after the people, as this was their duty and responsibility. Menes established a dynasty for kings to come. All in all, there were approximately thirty dynasties that stretched throughout Egypt's history. The kingdoms in which these people ruled are divided into the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms, and then followed by the Late Period.

Farmland in Egypt...