Terms from industrial revolution

Essay by lizb37 April 2004

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Industrial Revolution:

"V Dramatic changes in the social and economic structure that took place as inventions and technological innovations created the factory system of large-scale machine production and greater economic specialization.

"VThe Industrial Revolution has changed the face of nations, giving rise to urban centers requiring vast municipal services.

"VIt created a specialized and interdependent economic life and made the urban worker more completely dependent on the will of the employer than the rural worker had been.

Richard Arkwright:

"V1732-92, English inventor. His construction of a machine for spinning, the water frame, patented in 1769, was an early step in the Industrial Revolution.


"VA process that involved stirring the molten pig iron in a reverbatory furnace until the decarburizing action of the air produced a loop of pure metal.

James Watt:

"V1736-1819, Scottish inventor.

"VWhile working at the Univ. of Glasgow as an instrument maker, Watt was asked to repair a model of Thomas Newcomen's steam engine.

He devised improvements that resulted in a new type of engine (patented 1769) with a separate condensing chamber, an air pump to bring steam into the chamber, and parts of the engine insulated.

"VHe also perfected a rotary engine.


"Va locomotive designed by the British engineer George Stephenson,

"Vwon a competition sponsored by the Liverpool and Manchester Railroad

"Vpulled a load of three times its own weight at the rate of 20 km/h (12.5 mph) and hauled a coach filled with passengers at 39 km/h (24 mph)

"Vstimulated the building of other locomotives and the extension of railroad lines