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An international comparison of funding & expenditures for education (Canada, France, Japan, united states) I. A Comparison of Educational Systems: A. Curriculum B. Duration of teacher training and certification programs C. Existence of entrance/exit exams D. Ethic homogeneity (90% of entire population from one ethnic group) E. Age for starting school F. Average days in a school year G. Average minutes of instruction in a school day H. Student achievement I. Pupil/teacher ratios J. Percent of schools with one or more problems II. Where does the $ Come From? III. Where does the $ Go? Duration of teacher training and certification programs Country Length of training (years) Academic Program Canada 4 (A gradual move is being made General education at the university towards 5 years of teacher and 1-year of professional training preparation) and instruction in curriculum and teaching classes in contextual dimensions.

France Primary: 4 Primary: First three year spent in a license Secondary: 5 or more Program on any subject; then one year Is spent on curriculum training.

Secondary: first four years spent obtaining a degree in the subject to be taught; then 1-year teacher training on curriculum/instruction Japan First class elementary and lower First class elementary and lower secondary Secondary certificate: 4 teachers earn a Bachelor's degree focusing First class upper secondary: 6 on general subjects and pedagogy Second class elementary and First class upper secondary: Bachelor's Lower secondary certificate: 2 degree with less focus on pedagogy Second class upper secondary: 4 Plus 2 additional years of training on Curriculum and instruction Second class elementary and lower Secondary, Second class upper secondary: Four years of general studies United States 4 Particular emphases are shaped by Regulations, but usually include general Concentration in the academic subjects Teachers plan to teach (if they are in Secondary instruction) and in...