Upland Yuman and CRIT Indian Tribes of the Southwest.

Essay by BrthrbruceUniversity, Bachelor'sA+, November 2003

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The River and Upland Yumans are two large groups of tribes found throughout Arizona and the southwest. The Patayan are the prehistoric ancestors of both the Upland and River Yumans yet their locations changed over time, as well as their subsistence pattern. The Upland Yumans are made up of the Haulapi, Havasupai, and Yavapai whom all speak Yuman. Their territory was very expansive with its northwest border being the Colorado River, the southern most borders being the Gila River and found as far east as the San Francisco Peaks. The three groups which make up the River Yumans are the Cocopah, Mojave, and Quechan. As given by their name the River Yuman lived along the southern part of the Colorado River. The northern part of the river was very difficult terrain including the Grand Canyon, which was home to the Upland Yumans.

The largest difference in lifestyle between the River and Upland Yumans was their subsistence patterns.

The Upland Yumans were an agriculture band. This means they semi nomadic moving to where the new vegetation was beginning to grow. They had an annual plan of what areas they would live in accordance with what plants could be harvested. For example the in the spring the Haulapai would return to the foothills to collect agave and later return to the canyon, which was used to irrigate small farms. As for the River Yumans they lived a much different rancheria farming lifestyle. The River Yuman lifestyle was dependant on the annual flooding of the Colorado River, which would be nutrients to the soil. This tells a great deal about their lifestyle, tending their fields year round waiting for the floods to come and fertilize their land. Nearly half of their food was grown on these fertile flood plains. With...