Urbanization and its effects on welfare.

Essay by jumathieUniversity, Master'sB-, April 2006

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-Educational effects

As the cause of rapid urbanization lead to inequalities between the rural and urban areas, affecting the whole rural-urban education system. The gap of the education level became increasingly high. It is clear that for the last 25 years, economic development and urban-rural institutional reform have laid a solid foundation for improving urban and rural population's living conditions and benefits. However, the urban-rural gap is still evident in terms of rapid economic growth and slow-moving social development. For education level according to the statistic of the 5th national census of 2000, 39.1% of rural population received junior high education or above. Among rural population 42.8% received elementary education, and illiteracy rate among population above 15 years of age was 8.3%, higher than the respective 23.8% and 4.0% rate among urban population. Rural population is mainly composed of those with junior high and elementary education, while urban population is mainly composed of those with senior high education or above, which is undoubtedly the biggest inequality between urban and rural areas.

Of the nation's financial budget, allocations for compulsory education in rural areas are seriously inadequate. This proportion of funds budgeted in 1994-2000 for compulsory education in rural areas comprised of 57% of total amount of funds necessary for compulsory education in rural areas. Such a graded educational system only worsening and retards development of rural education. It would extend or even expand inequality in terms of urban-rural and inter-city compulsory education.

- Culture effects

Due to the rise of urbanization's level, population in urban cities encounters rapid increase, cultures and lifestyle of people also changed from preceding period. People in rural areas that were used to the rural life styles has to change in order to adapt to cities' life. According to cultural traditions, nowadays, China is gradually losing...