Essays Tagged: "Classical conditioning"

Classical and Operant Conditioning

There are two main explanations of how organisms learn. Thefirst explanation is known as classical conditioning. The secondexplanation is known as operant conditioning. These two types ofle ... These two types oflearning are exhibited in our everyday lives through our home,school, and school.Classical conditioning was discovered by Iran PetrovichPavlov. He was originally a physiologist whos ... theneutral stimulus can be associated with another stimulus, then itbecomes a conditioned stimulus.Classical conditioning can be exemplified in the home,school, and school. In the home a child could ...

(3 pages) 235 0 3.0 Feb/1997

Subjects: Social Science Essays > Psychology

The Effects of Physical Punishment to Modify Undesireable Behavior in Children. This essay explains the negative effects of using physical punishment on children.

hildren raised with violent punishment are more violent in thee relationships with others. They are classically conditioned to see fear as a source of pain and know that this can be used to benefit th ... this can be used to benefit them, as they have seen their parents use it. This is a side effect of classical conditioning of fear. There are many other negative side effects of physical punishment in ...

(2 pages) 163 2 4.7 Dec/2002

Subjects: Humanities Essays > Health & Medicine

Classical and Operant Conditioning.

Classical and Operant ConditioningThere are many differences between classical and operant condition ... t conditioning. One is the extent to which reinforcement depends on the behavior of the learner. In classical conditioning the response is a natural reaction that the subject cannot avoid. They can be ... ould not know this until he jumps onto the stool for the first time.Another main difference between classical and operant conditioning is the type of behavior to which each method applies. The behavio ...

(3 pages) 375 1 4.2 Dec/2002

Subjects: Social Science Essays > Psychology

B.F. Skinners theory of punishment

is resulted by different types of practices and experiences. In this report the main topics will be classical conditioning, operant conditioning, cognitive-social learning, and neuroscience and evolut ... ng away stimulus of the action not occurring again.The two types of conditioning we are covering is classical and operant. Conditioning is learning through repetition of exercises of rewards or punish ...

(3 pages) 266 3 4.9 Mar/2003

Subjects: Social Science Essays > Psychology > Psychological Theories & Authors

Comparison of Pavlov vs Bandura.

We use the term classical conditioning to describe one type of associative learning in which there is no contingency ... nstrumental or operant, where producing a CR controls the UCS presentations (Ryle 1995). Therefore, classical conditioning involves learning by association - where you simply learn by associating two ... s to respond (salivate) to the light without the presentation of the food. One of the principles of classical conditioning is extinction. If a CS is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stim ...

(8 pages) 199 0 4.4 May/2003

Subjects: Social Science Essays > Psychology > Psychological Theories & Authors

Learning and memory.

rience and cannot be attributed to illness, injury, or maturation.We learn in three different ways: Classical conditioning, operant or instrumental conditioning, and observational learning.Classical o ... havior modification: The systematic application of the learning principles of operant conditioning, classical conditioning, or observational learning to individuals or groups in order to eliminate und ...

(5 pages) 454 3 4.7 Nov/2003

Subjects: Social Science Essays > Psychology

Behavioristic Man

iorism and explores his ideas and theories important to behaviorism. One such idea is his theory of classical and operant conditioning. Behaviorists commonly make a distinction between respondent and ... muli, such as Pavlov's experiments. The conditioning of respondent behavior is often referred to as classical conditioning. Operant responses are used because in such responses the individual "operate ...

(1 pages) 24 0 1.0 Mar/2004

Subjects: Humanities Essays

The aquisition of Prejudice

of a group. As with other attitudes, prejudice can be thought of as consisting of three components: classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and cognitive-social learning.Classical conditioning i ... s to elicit a conditioned response that is identical or very similar to the unconditioned response. Classical conditioning is considered to be a main factor in prejudice because the behavior has to be ...

(2 pages) 100 2 5.0 Mar/2004

Subjects: Social Science Essays > Psychology

Operant and Classical Conditioning

Classical conditioning was identified by Thorndike (pictured left), he experimented on a number of a ... dike (pictured left), he experimented on a number of animals and generalised the results to humans. Classical conditioning is where a conditioned response leads to a conditioned response which has ris ... en the unconditioned stimulus and conditioned stimulus are presented at the same time.Principles of classical conditioning are generalisation, extinction and spontaneous recovery. Generalisation is wh ...

(3 pages) 171 0 4.3 May/2004

Subjects: Social Science Essays > Psychology

Pavlov's discovery

Classical conditioning was discovered by Ivan Pavlov. His discoverywas made during a study on the sa ... the neutralstimulus can be associated with another stimulus, then it becomes a conditioned stimulus.Classical conditioning can be exemplified in the home, and school. In the home achild could smell br ... s is the sound of the alarm, and theconditioned response is the exiting of the building.In closing, classical conditioning is a very good explanation of an organism's wayof learning. These two explana ...

(1 pages) 50 0 3.0 Oct/2004

Subjects: Social Science Essays > Psychology > Psychological Theories & Authors

Classical Conditioning

Classical ConditioningClassical conditioning occurs when a stimulus that elicits a response is paire ... d by Ivan Pavlov's" dog experiments" when doing research on a digestion of animals.- Pavlov induced classical conditioning learning by pairing a neutral stimulus (a bell) with a stimulus known to caus ... of these canine consumers over a sound, now linked to feeding time, was a conditioned response (CR).Classical conditioning can have similar effects for more complex reactions (such as in automatically ...

(1 pages) 84 1 0.0 Nov/2004

Subjects: Social Science Essays > Psychology

What is "Learning"? Discuss "classical conditioning" and "instrumental conditioning", and explain, with examples, their applications to marketing practice.

What is "Learning"? Discuss "classical conditioning" and "instrumental conditioning", and explain, with examples, their applicati ... onses, or reactions to these stimuli).This view is represented by two major approaches to learning: classical and instrumental conditioning. According to this perspective, people's experiences are sha ... ts, jingles and other marketing stimuli based on the learned connections they have formed over time.Classical conditioning occurs when a stimulus that elicits a response is paired with another stimulu ...

(2 pages) 79 0 5.0 Nov/2004

Subjects: Businesss Research Papers > Case Studies

Learning is a permanent change in behaviour caused by experience. The learner does not need to have the experience directly; we can also learn by observing others .

he process of learning. Here we will discuss the two major approaches to learning; instrumental and classical conditioning.Classical ConditioningIt occurs when a stimulus that elicits a response is pa ... lus that initially does not elicit a response on its own.A Russian physiologist , Pavlov introduced classically conditioned learning by pairing a neutral stimulus ( a bell ) with a stimulus known to c ...

(4 pages) 179 0 4.0 Nov/2004

Subjects: Social Science Essays > Psychology

The Neural Basis for Classical Conditioning in Aplysia, the sea hare (With refrences!!)

ssociative and non-associative learning tasks may include sensitization, habituation, operation and classical conditioning. The following studies conducted on the aplysia californica are those that fo ... hed in the Journal of Neuroscience in the year 2001.The first study is a behavioral analysis of classical conditioning of feeding in aplysia presents a conditional stimulus of using tactile stimul ...

(12 pages) 45 0 4.3 Jan/2005

Subjects: Science Essays > Biology

The psychological perspective Of Learning

emphasises the relationship between stimuli and responses. The two types of conditioning found are Classical conditioning and Operant conditioning. Learning may occur in different ways. Psychologists ... uished between different types of learning, these being Observational Learning and Insight Learning.Classical conditioning refers to a simple form of learning, which occurs through the repeated associ ...

(5 pages) 104 0 4.6 Mar/2005

Subjects: Social Science Essays > Psychology

Classical conditioning VS Operant conditioning

s adjust to the ever-changing environment. Learning is the association between two events together. Classical conditioning and operant conditioning both work with associating events together.Classical ... ssociating events together.Classical conditioningThanks to Ivan Pavlov, the accidental discovery of classical or 'Pavlovian conditioning' led to a whole new section of learning. Classical conditioning ...

(4 pages) 239 1 4.0 Apr/2005

Subjects: Social Science Essays > Psychology

Organisational Learning and Development.

and Donald Schon, covering the topic of single and double-loop learning; Ivan Pavlov, in regards to Classical Conditioning; Tsoukas and Vladimirou, which talks about learning in a social manner; and f ... other organisations.The second theory I have found valuable towards learning organisations, is the Classical Conditioning Theory which was implemented by the famous Russian psychologist, Ivan Pavlov ...

(10 pages) 327 1 5.0 Sep/2005

Subjects: Businesss Research Papers > Management

Classical and Operant Conditioning: A Contrast. Clearly explains both forms of conditioning and contrasts the two.

Though classical conditioning and operant conditioning are both techniques involving learning and the acqui ... chology should be based on experimental investigation of behaviors," the two fields often intersect.Classical conditioning was brought to the forefront of psychology via Ivan Pavlov's experiments with ... desires pepperoni pizza. Au contraire, he absolutely abhors the thought of it.This is an example of classical conditioning. The boy acquired the association of nausea and the horrible stomach pain wit ...

(5 pages) 146 1 4.5 Oct/2005

Subjects: Social Science Essays > Psychology

Classical Conditioning.

The research on classical conditioning started with a number of experiments by Ivan Pavlov. He started with ringing ... ogs started to salivate just after they heard the sound of the bell, even they did not get any food.Classical conditioning works in the following way. Prior to the conditioning, when some subject is b ... an be described that a stimulus that, during learning, causes a conditioned response.Such a type of classical conditioning tests are quite easy to design and be carried out. For example, everyone know ...

(8 pages) 159 0 4.3 Nov/2005

Subjects: Science Essays

Is Psychology a Science?

served phenomena, such as Watson's attempt to account for human and non-human behaviour in terms of classical conditioning, and Skinner's subsequent attempt to do the same with operant conditioning. A ...

(5 pages) 188 2 4.1 Nov/2005

Subjects: Social Science Essays > Psychology