PLATO VS. ARISTOTLE Dialectical & maieutic Organic systematization, distinction of themes and problems according to their nature and differ- ing methods of resolution Faith/religious based arguments Rigorous, theoretical logos based arguments Used mysticism in philosophy Philosophy based on concrete things of exper- ience Speculative interests Speculative interests and empirical interests employing anthropology Use of mathematical calculation Less math, more empirical methodology. Collecting & classifying specimens Inflexible arguments, lacking aporia Fluid arguments which institutionalized aporia CONCEPTS PLATO VS. ARISTOTLE Idea- external pattern to copy Form- internal urge for one to follow .
Exterior causation Self-sufficiency Active god- the designer of Passive god- mover the world’s pattern of the world’s form PLATO VS. ARISTOTLE God as a personal guide God as an impersonal stimulus Transcended principle of "one good" "Good" understood as the final cause of the whole of reality, "that towards which everything else tends".
Fixed "goods" Relational "goods".
Three types Exterior goods (wealth & pleasure) Absence of exterior not necessary for happiness goods may spoil or compromise happi- ness, i.e. Priam.
DEFINITIONS JUSTICE - Dike PLATO: Every man is free to attend to his own business, provided he does not interfere with the rights of other people.
A friendly interweaving of mutual interests instead of a snarling warfare about irreconcilable aims. Justice as a universal fact, i.e. the Kallipolis.
ARISTOTLE: Justice is the mean between gain and loss. Justice as the lawful (universal) and justice as the fair and equal (particular). Particular justice consists of distributive (pertains to honor and wealth) and rectificatory (pertains to contracts/transactions) justice. Justice is the supreme ethical virtue.
HAPPINESS - Eudaimonia PLATO: Complete manifestation of virtues (wisdom, courage, moderation and most importantly, justice).
ARISTOTLE: - well being through well doing. Happiness is active. One does not receive it but achieves it. It is achieved through the mean.
GOOD - Agathon PLATO: Divides good into three categories; one which is inherently pleasurable (joy), another that is inherently pleasurable and produces pleasure (health) and one which produces benefits but is difficult to obtain (medical treatment, physical training).