1. A normal gene for autosomal traits may look something like this: T A C A C C T T G G C G A C G A C T
For this problem, that gene has been mutated and now looks like this : T A C A C C T T A G C G A C G A C T
Please transcribe and translate this gene (mRNA and tRNA, including amino acids) and explain the processes of both transcription and translation. Compare the processes of transcription and translation in the normal DNA strand, and the mutated strand. (10 - I, 15 A)
DNA: ATG TGG AAC CGC TGC TGA
mRNA: AUG UGG AAC CGC UGC UGA
Amino acid: MET TRP ASN ARG CYS STO
DNA: ATG TGG AAT CGC TGC TGA
mRNA: AUG UGG AAU CGC UGC UGA
Amino Acid: MET TRP ASN ARG CYS STO
Transcription is the creating of a matching RNA copy of a sequence of DNA.
RNA and DNA are both nucleic acids and use base pairs of nucleotides that can be converted back and forth from DNA to RNA by enzymes. A DNA sequence is read by and RNA polymerase, which makes a matching antiparallel RNA strand. Instead of DNA replication, transcription uses RNA that includes uracil (U) instead of thymine (T), which would happen in DNA replication.
RNA polymerase moves to the transcription bubble, a stretch of unpaired nucleotides, by breaking the hydrogen bonds between complementary nucleotides.
RNA polymerase adds matching RNA nucleotides that are paired with complementary DNA bases.
RNA sugar-phosphate backbone forms with assistance from RNA polymerase.
Hydrogen bonds of the untwisted RNA + DNA helix break, freeing the newly synthesized RNA strand.
Transcription is the first step leading to gene expression. The...