What is organizational culture ? The metaphor of organization as culture is a part of the symbolic interpretative theories in the 1980s. According to Hatch (1997:52) it can be defined as: ÃÂ¡ÃÂ§Image of the organization as a pattern of meanings created and maintained by human association through shared values, traditions, and customs.ÃÂ¡ÃÂ¨ But many authors have different definitions.
ScheinÃÂ¡ÃÂ¦s model A model for explaining culture has been produced by Edgar Schein a social psychologist came to the three levels of culture theory in the early 1980s.
ScheinÃÂ¡ÃÂ¦s theory (1985) shows that there are three levels of culture. First, there are the assumptions, which are the beliefs and taken for granted ideas in the organization. There is no level of awareness for the people belonging to this organization Secondly, there are the values and norms. The values are the principles, the goals that the organization believes in, they help to make judgment and to know what is right and what is wrong.
The norms are an unwritten guide of behavior. For values and norms there is a greater level of awareness.
Finally, there are artifacts, which are the most visible part of the organizationÃÂ¡ÃÂ¦s culture. They can be physical manifestations, behavioral manifestations or verbal manifestations.
Assumptions The staff seems to recognize that The Body Shop tend to be more socially and environmentally responsible than its competitors. But it needs at first to make profit to continue its activity. It also tries to be innovative by creating a new way of doing business.
Values As a business The Body Shop has a lot of ethical values. Human rights, equal opportunities in the workplace, training, good communication, and wages are as good or better than the other similar industries.
It also tries to be innovative on products.
Transparency and special relationships with suppliers,