Complex bonding

Essay by crazy53928 September 2008

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Though the periodic table has only 118 or so elements, there are obviously more substances in nature than 118 pure elements. This is because atoms can react with one another to form new substances called compounds. Formed when two or more atoms chemically bond together, the resulting compound is unique both chemically and physically from its parent atoms.

In this lab, we realized that the stronger the intermolecular forces are, the smaller the delta t is. This is because it takes longer to break these bonds. It is harder to evaporate, because there are stronger bonds. They don’t carry heat as quick, because it evaporates slower. The more electrons there are, the more shifting there will be, and there’s greater dispersion forces. The electrons are held tighter, so there is a stronger bond, and therefore a lower delta t. A heavier mass also means there is a greater dispersion force, and therefore a lower delta t.

Butanol and pentane have a similar molecular weight, but butane’s delta t is lower than pentane’s delta t. This is because butanol has hydrogen bonds present, and pentane has no hydrogen bonds. There also could have been some percent error in our calculations. A few causes for percent error could be that the probes were not at the same temperature, or that the air current was not moving around at the exact same speed, and that might have effected the evaporation rates.

ConclusionWe realized that the larger the molecular mass is, the stronger the dispersion forces are, and the electrons are held in tighter. This causes a lower delta t. In addition, hydrogen bonding causes a lower delta t.

In ionic bonding, electrons are completely transferred from one atom to another. In the process of either losing or gaining negatively charged electrons, the reacting atoms form ions. The oppositely charged ions are attracted to each other by electrostatic forces, which are the basis of the ionic