* The votes cast for losing candidates and those cast for winning candidates over the plurality mark are 'wasted' by this system
* Electoral preference is distorted by 'under-representation' of small parties and parties that have support that is distributed evenly throughout the geography of the country (the 'third-party effect').
* Limited choice is offered because of tendencies towards two-major-parties.
* The legitimacy of government is undermined in that a system of plurality rule is formed because governments often only have marginal support.
* Instability is created because a drastic change in policies can occur with a change in government.
* Government is usually secondary to the executive, leading to unaccountable government because of the majority of its members supporting the principal party.
* The selection of a broad cross-section of candidates is discouraged in favour of candidates who are attractive to the bulk of the voters.