(1b) Discuss some of the pertinent challenges of the Malay intelligentsias in the development of Malay Society.
The Malay intelligentsias have been facing several challenges in the course of development of the Malay society. The major factors that have impeded the development of the Malay society are traditions, feudalism, collective representation and Islamic revivalism. However, it is also important to note that these factors which have opposed development are not exhaustive. In this paper, I will be focusing on the impacts of the factors mentioned above and how they posed challenges to the Malay intelligentsias in the course of development of the society.
Traditions play an important role in the society, but holding on to them and resisting change actually hinders the development of a society. Tradition is a set of values that a particular group of people holds on to for a long period of their history, and is responsible for influencing people's opinions and responses to various issues.
Traditions are required in the course of development as it helps people to preserve their culture and identity in the face of strong pressure for change. In the case of the Malay society, traditions help to ensure that there is a smooth transition between the various feudal, colonial and modern period. During these periods, traditions provided the masses a sense of belonging and security in the face of these challenges. [1: Shaharuddin Maaruf, "Some theoretical problems concerning tradition and modernization among the Malays of Southeast Asia", in Asian tradition and modernization perspectives from Singapore, ed. Young Mun Cheong [Singapore: Time Academic Press, 1992], p243.]
It is important to note that when a society is faced with challenges or changes, people will grapple with traditions. For instance, when the Malay society is pressured to embrace westernisation, the Malays tried to come...