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AP Biology Chapter 5

5.1 Macromolecules

Macromolecules are polymers built from polymers

Carbohydrates, Proteins, and nucleic acids are chain like molecules, while lipids are polymers them selves

Polymers are long molecules consisting of many similar identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds = monomers


In cells, the breakdown of polymers are facilitated by enzymes, proteins that speed up reactions

Monomers are linked by a reaction in which two molecules are covalently bonded with the loss of a water molecules, also known as a dehydration reaction

When a bond forms between two monomers, each molecule contributes a part of a water molecule, either a hydroxyl (OH) or a hydrogen (H).

Polymers are disabled by hydrolysis(water breakage) , a process in which water is added to the polymer and therefore breaks the bond between the monomers, this process occurs in our digestion

Polymers are made from about 40-50 monomers, and the key to infinite possibilities is arrangement


Serve as fuel and building material, include sugars and polymers of sugars

The simplest carbohydrates are the monosaccharides, or simple sugars(monomers)

Disaccharides are double sugars consisting of two monosaccharides joined by covalent bonds

Macromolecules are polymers called polysaccharides


Monosaccharides have molecular formulas of the unit CH2O.

Glucose is the most common one (C6H12O6)

Has a carbonyl group and multiple hydroxyl groups

Depending on location of carbonyl group, it's a ketose(middle of carbon skeleton or an aldose (end of carbon skeleton)

Can also classify sugars by the size of the carbon skeleton which ranges from 3-7 carbons

Triose(3 carbon) Glycerldehyde and Dihydroxyacetone

Pentos(5 carbon) Ribose and Ribulose

Glucose, Fructose, Galactose have 6 carbons

Another source of diversity is by their arrangement for example, Glucose and Galactose only differ in the asymmetric carbon.

In solutions, Glucose molecules form rings

Monosaccharides are a major...