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John C. Fremont- 1842 Fremont headed west from Kansas City across the Great-Plains to Colorado and Wyoming. His father-in-law had (Senator Thomas Hart Benton ) arranged for mountainman Kit Carson and some Indian guides to go along. They placed the American flag on what they thought was the highest peak in the Rockies. It was a dramatic gesture, and it becme a symbol of the manifest destiny idea: that the West was meant to be part of the United States.

On his next expedition (1843-1844) Freemont went over the Rockies and on to Oregon and California, Traversing and mapping much of the far West.

Bear Flag Republic- in June of 1846 a group of Americans in Sonoma who were setting up their own independent California nation. When Freemont arrived in the area with his 60 men he encouraged them.

Fremont was also an excellent writer. People loved reading his stories.

CHAPTER 10 Presidio-Fort Hacienda-Ranch plantation Vaquero-Spanish speaking cowboy Stephen Austin- leader of a band of Missouri emigrants to Texas(1821) Antinio Lopez de Santa Anna- Military dictator of Mexico after Mexico gained its independence from Spain; Texas land was part of Mexico and controlled by Spain. It had been so since the 16th century when de Soto Cabeza de Vaca, Fray Marcos, Esteban, and Coronado searched for the seven cities of Cibola.

Stephen Austin in 1821 led a group of 300 settlers to Texas from Missouri.

That same year Mexico rebelled against Spanish rule and became independent. In 1824 the Mexicans approved a fine constitution and formed a republic. Because the people were not used to a tradition of self-government ,it made it easy for a man named Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna to take over as dictator.

By 1830 there were more English-speaking Americans in Texas than Mexicans. Some of them didn't want to be Mexican citizens, or to become Catholic. They wanted schools and freedom of religion. Some brought slaves(which were Illegal in Mexico) Some did not want to share the land with Indians and even bragged about killing them.

1835- Texas rebels attacked San Antonio.

1836- Santa Anna marched toward Texas with an army of more than 3,000 men. He was determined to rout the anglos some of whom ran back to the United States.

Those who stayed gathered in an old chapel in San Antonio . 200 hundred of them including Davy Crockett and Jim Bowie.

Davy Crockett- Was a great story teller. He became a U.S. Congressman and he was fearless. He always stood up and spoke out on issues even when President Jackson sent the Cherokee Indians from their homes in Georgia to the Oklahoma territory, Davy thought it was wrong and said so. Because of his boldness he lost his seat in the Congress. But he kept his conscience and his good judgment.

Jim Bowie- designed the razor - sharp knife called the bowie knife to this day.

Bowie and Crockett and the others held out for 12 days against the Santa Anna's army. They had no reinforcements and not enough ammunition. Finally the Mexicans broke through the walls of the Alamo. All were killed except 6 children.

The remaininf English-speaking settlers in Texas were furious. They decided to fight for independence for Texas. When they did they yelled, "Remember the Alamo!" There leader was Sam Houston. He attacked and captured Santa Anna, made him sign a treaty that made Texas an independent nation, and then was elected president of the new Republic of Texas. Texas was not made a part of the U.S. until 1845 because Texas wanted to be accepted as a slave state; this would have meant that the southern states would have had more votes in Congress that the northern states; President Jackson would not allow Texas to join the U.S. because this would have made an imbalance between the slave and free states. Texas remained an independent republic for over nine years; from April of 1836 till December of 1845.