A business, as we know, needs land (a site), capital (factories, machinery, tools) and labour (workers) before it can produce anything. The most important of these factors is often quoted as being labour - the human resources that are needed for a business to be able to produce a good or service. Human resources (workers) need to be paid, to feel secure, to be valued, to be praised, to be promoted. Businesses that have workers who work not just for money but because they enjoy their work and feel valued are likely to be more efficient than other businesses. Absenteeism will be lower as will lateness and illness.
Motivation is the way in which workers can be encouraged to do a good job. Motivation is concerned with the strength and direction of behaviour. A well-motivated person is someone with clearly defined goals who takes action, which he or she expects, will achieve those goals.
So motivation is much more than just pay. This means that to a business, motivation is:
finding ways to get workers to work harder or more efficiently by:
-showing that they value workers
-providing ways for workers to succeed
-providing a structure for promotion.
There are several theories as to what its is that makes people work harder. The best known are those of Maslow, McGregor and Herzberg.
A. H. Maslow (1908-70) was an American psychologist who said that people worked in order to gain certain things. Firstly, they need to satisfy their survival needs; this means that they must either grow their own food or earn sufficient money to be able to buy the basic necessities of food, clothing and shelter. Secondly, once these needs are met, people will want to be safe and secure. These two basic...