Have you ever been in the situation that a friend, who is waiting for you called and asked where you are? And then you just say five minutes away, but actually you haven't left home yet. That is a lie. What do we mean by "lie"? In order for you to understand the concept of lying, I will trace the word from an old English root. And suggest 2 specialized dictionaries, one from dictionary of bible in religion and philosophy, and the other one is from psychoanalysis dictionary. I will present a "model case" for the concept of lie. From that case, I m gonna contrast with the opposite concept "honesty". Then, I will give essential features of lie and finish with a quote from George Herbert.
The word lie came from an old English root. It has many different meanings. It means a false statement made with intent to deceive; a criminal falsehood.
In modern use, the word is normally a violent expression of moral reprobation, which in polite conversation tends to be avoided. It also means direction or position in which something lies; direction and amount of slope or inclination. In the dictionary of bible in religion and philosophy, it means false statements, and accusations are sternly forbidden. Satan is called the "father of Lies" and Christians are forbidden to tell falsehoods. According to the psychoanalysis dictionary, a lie is the dissimulation or willful deformation of the contents of a thought that the subject deems to be true. A lie implies the intent to deceive and supports self-interest. The psychoanalytic approach to lying introduces the dimension of the unconscious.
Here is the model case: a minister asked people to read the 17th chapter of mark, because he is going to preach on the subject of...