Essay by cherylchenUniversity, Master's December 2004

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1.0 Introduction

Management is different from leadership, although they are often used interchangeably.

The definition of management is "the attainment of organizational goals in an effective and efficient manner through planning, organization, leading, and controlling organizational resources." (Daft, 2003, 5) And the definition of leadership is "an influence relationship among leaders and followers who intend real changes that reflect their shared purposes."(Smith & Peterson, 1988, 14) The difference between management and leadership are compared in Figure 1.1

Comparing Management and Leadership

Source: Adapted from Richard L. Daft (1999), Leadership Theory and Practice, USA: Harcourt, Inc., 39

"Management produces a degree of stability, predictability, order, and efficiency. [...] Leadership, on the other hand, creates change, often to a dramatic degree." (Daft, 1999, 45) Leadership should be in addition to management, and the schools of management thinking have great impact and contribution to the different leadership theories.

2.0 The Evolution of Management thinking and its contribution to leadership theory

The practice of management can be traced to 3000 B.C.

to the first government organizations developed by the Sumerians and Egyptians, but the formal study of management is relatively recent. (Daniel A. Wren, 1987) The development of management thinking is the result of impact of the social, political, and economic forces. In other words, it's the outcome of the changing external and internal environment. The evolution of management thought through the decades is showed in Figure 2.1.

Figure 2.1 Source: Adapted from Bateman Thomas S. & Scott A. Snell, (1996), Management: building competitive advantage, 3rd ed., USA: Irwin, 31.

The management perspective is divided into two major parts: classical approaches and contemporary approaches. "Many of these approaches developed simultaneously, and they often had a significant impact on one another. Some approaches were a direct reaction to the perceived deficiencies of previous approaches. Others...