Management as a self-conscious activity is a creation of the nineteenth century although systematic consideration of the elements that constitute it can certainly be dated to the late eighteenth century. Richard L. Daft (2000, p.g.7) described Management as "The attainment of organizational goals in an effective and efficient manner through planning, organizing, leading and controlling organizational resources."
2. Classical Management Perspective
Richard L. Daft (2000, p.g.45) defined that "The classical perspective on management emerged during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that emphasized a rational, scientific approach to the study of management and sought to make organizations efficient operating machines." This perspective contains three subfields, each with a slightly different emphasis: scientific management - Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856 - 1915), bureaucratic organizations - Max Weber (1864 - 1920) and administrative principles - Henri Fayol (1841 - 1925).
2.1 Scientific Management
Richard L. Daft (2000, p.g.47) defined that "Scientific management emphasized scientifically determined changes in management practices as the solution to improving labor productivity."
Frederick W. Taylor acknowledged as the father of scientific management. He is known for defining the techniques of scientific management that is the study of relationships between people and tasks for the purpose of redesigning the work process to increase efficiency.
He was the first to attempt to systematically analyze behavior at work. His model was the machine therefore his ideas are often characterized as the machine model of organizations. Each task was broken down to its smallest unit to identify the best way to do each job. Then the supervisor would teach it to the worker and make sure the worker did only those actions essential to the task.
2.2 Bureaucratic Organizations
Richard L. Daft (2000, p.g.47) defined that "Bureaucratic organizations emphasized management on an impersonal, rational basis through such elements as clearly defined...