Question 1 (a)
In Marketing Management, there are six different business orientation approaches namely production orientation, product orientation, sales orientation, marketing orientation, consumer orientation and profit orientation.
The Production orientation approach was popular in the nineteenth century as the industrial revolution provided the technology to allow mass production of goods. By manufacturing in large volumes, this drove costs down. However, the limitation is that there is little variation between units and products were simple and not customized. The company is concerned with efficiently making an affordable product in bulk and selling them all. So it does not have to worry about finding customers because the customers are willing to line up and buy all the products that it can make. It mainly focuses on price above all features of a product. An example is the cheap kitchen knife sets available on the market. There are expensive sets which will not break, but many people buy these cheap, flimsy handles, easily dulled blades.
Secondly the product orientation of marketing focuses solely on the product a company intends to sell. This orientation was popular during the 1950s and into the 1960s. A firm employing a product orientation is only concerned with the quality of its product and it assumes that as long as its product was of a high standard, people would buy and consume the product. This approach stresses the research and development of products and the continuous evolution during their life cycles, in order to maintain the attention of potential customers. Under the product orientation, management focuses on developing high quality products which can be sold at the right price, but with insufficient attention to what it is that customers really need and want. An example is Chanel Grand Extract, a special limited edition reserved only for the most opulent...