France overthrew its Bourbon king
-Charles X - last king of France; his rule was ended by a short and almost bloodless revolution in 1830
-Ignored both middle-class liberals and Parisian radials
-Tried to rule as an absolute monarch; he had nothing but contempt for a limited monarchy
-Tried to take away the few powers of France's Chamber of Deputies; as a result, riots broke out, forcing him to flee as an exile to Great Britain
-After Charles left, his cousin Louis Philippe became "citizen king" of France, who would share power with the Chamber of Deputies
Britain's middle class won the vote
-Parliament passed the Reform Bill of 1832:
-set up new districts for electing members of Parliament
- before the Reform Bill of 1832, some districts that consisted of empty medieval villages could elect a member of the Parliament, while new cities created after the establishment of the districts with people actually living in it couldn't elect a member of the Parliament.
The reform bill put an end to this injustice
- gave more men the right to vote
- before: only men who owned a certain amount of property could vote
- after: men who paid a certain amount of rent could also vote
- doubled the number of British voters; nearly all middle-class men could now take part in elections
The working class had little power
-in Britain, working class people had no political influence
- Industrial Revolution:
-Began in Great Britain
-Worker's wages rose
- Ordinary people were better fed and better clothed
- Workers began to organize
- Spread across Europe and affected the Ruhr and Rhine valleys in western Germany and Po valley in northern Italy.
- Factories sprang up in cities such as Frankfurt, Cologne, and Milan; radical political organizers...