Essay by PaperNerd ContributorCollege, Undergraduate October 2001

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Nature has a very special way of making new plants through tiny things called seeds. Seeds are very important to our lives, from these tiny beings the plants, that we need to survive, will grow. A seed is a ripened ovule of a plant, this is what produces new plants. The seed is a key part in the never ending cycle of reproduction. There are two kinds of seeds, angiosperms and gymnosperms. To start off you have to know exactly what a seed is. A seed id the ripened ovule of a seed plant before it is germinated. There are many parts to a seed. The outside layer, which is called the testa, acts as protection for the small plant buried inside. The inside part of the seed is known as the endosperm. This can be split into two parts. These two parts are known as cotyledons or seed leaves. This provides nourishment for the plant when it first breaks out of its seed coat and before it has had time to establish its roots or make its own food. Buried deep inside is the tiny plant itself, this is known as the embryo or germ. Tho tiny now, this small thing will grow into a simple flower or a large tree. Attached to the cotyledons are two structures. During germination, beneath the cotyledons is the hypocotyle, the tip pf this is called the radical. The radical is the first to break out of the seed coat and the first true root of the plant. Below the cotyledons is the epicotyl, which produces the stem and leaves.

Before you learn about the process of germination, you have to know just where the seed comes from and just how the process works. First the pollen from the anthers grip onto...