Smoking is the major factor of CHD development in the world, and especially in Ukraine

Essay by lolikaHigh School, 11th gradeA-, June 2004

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Smoking is one of the major causes of many diseases in the world. Today it is the main factor affecting the development of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) in Ukraine.

"Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is one of the main causes of death in Britain and in many other developed countries."(Advanced Biology for you 2000, by Gareth Williams) This disease is a result of the disruption of the heart's function, by the blockages (atheromas), which occur due to the build up of fatty deposits in the arteries carrying blood to the heart muscle, the process is called atherosclerosis. Or thrombosis, which develops if an atheroma, goes through the endothelium of the blood vessel and forms a rough surface that enables the blood to flow steadily through the vessels. So a blood clot is formed called a thrombus. This leads to: " Angina, which is a severe pain in the chest brought on by exertion and relieved by rest.

A heart attack (Myocardial infarction) is due to obstruction of a coronary artery either as a result of atherosclerosis or blood clot: part of the heart muscle is deprived of oxygen and dies." (Taken from:

The leading cause of CHD in Ukraine at the moment is smoking. The main reason that smoking is a risk factor is carbon monoxide, which attaches to haemoglobin much easily than oxygen and reduces the amount of oxygen given to the tissues (vessels too!). So Atherosclerosis is more likely to occur and therefore thrombosis too. Blood flows less easily through rigid and narrowed arteries. The blockage of an artery will lead to a fatal heart attack, stroke or gangrene.

Nicotine increases adrenaline secretion, therefore leading to high heart rate and blood pressure. The level of fibrinogen rises and the increased blood platelets lead to blood clotting. This...