Speciation is the formation of two or more genetically distinct groups of organisms after a division within a single group or species. They are groups of organisms capable of interbreeding which segregate into two or more populations, which gradually develop barriers to reproduction. These barriers can form separated populations, and may reproduce at different locations or at different times of the year. When the reproductive isolation is maintained long enough, the separated groups may develop into separate, distinct, identifiable species.
There are two main types of speciation. Sympatric speciation refers to the evolution of two or more species from an ancestral species in the same place at the same time. Allopatric speciation refers to the evolution of two or more species from an ancestral species as a result of geographical separation.
Allopatric speciation is when the ancestral gene pool becomes split into two or more gene pools that are no longer connected by gene flow.
The resulting gene pools diverge from one another to establish new species. Over many generations, the new forms become sufficiently distinct that were they to be brought together with each other, or the original parental population, they would be unable to interbreed successfully.
Two examples of allopatric speciation are adaptive radiation and convergent evolution. Adaptive radiation is the production of many ecologically diverse species from an genealogical species, other known as a multiple branching of a family tree. Darwin's finches are examples of adaptive radiation. Darwin's finches over time began to occupy new traits and evolved overtime into different animals. Convergent Evolution are changes caused by unrelated species with different evolutionary histories. Convergent evolution is the opposite of adaptive radiation. Convergent evolution happens to different types of organisms who evolve similar characteristics.
Sympatric speciation requires the development of some form of reproductive isolating mechanism in...