Turing Notes

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Computer Exam Study Notes

Unit 1


Part of the computer that you can see or touch

4 Categories of Hardware

Storage: permanently stores data. Ex. Jump drive, hard drive, floppy disk

Memory: temporally hold data/information that is currently running

Volatile: disappears when turned out RAM

Non-volatile: ROM

Peripherals: input/output devices. Ex. Mouse-input, speakers-output, touch screen monitor-both

CPU: Central processing unit. It is the brain of the computer, there are 3 parts

Control unit (CU): the 'boss' or 'manager' of resources

Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU): performs mathematical operations

On-chip memory


The programs used to direct the operation of a computer, as well documentation giving instructions on how to use them (a set of instructions to control the hardware)

Software 3 Categories

Application Software - helps people to accomplish certain tasks

Example: word, excel, PowerPoint, games, etc.

Systems Software - helps the computer to manage its own resources

Example: Windows, Mac OS, Linux

Programming Editors/Environments - allow users to create their own application or systems software

Example: Turing, Java

Focus on Software:

5 Operating Systems:



Microsoft Windows


Mac OS

Two tasks which the operating systems perform

Accepting input from the keyboard

Managing input and output between the computer and external devices

Editor: The general name for the window in a programming environment that allows you to enter and change the program

Compiler and Interpreter: Tools that change the program into the machine language that the computer can understand


Resides in storage

Translates entire code into 0s and 1s, saves it, then runs it

A lot of time is spent analyzing and processing the code

Program runs quickly


Resides in memory

Translates one line of the program into 0s and 1s, runs it, then moves to the next line without saving

Little time is...