Unification of Italy
The unification of Italy also called the Risorgimento which means revival started in the 1840s. In 1848 fighting began in Austria to drive the Austrians out of the Italian peninsula. They did not succeed and Austria took control of the land. In 1848 the Pope was pushed out of rule by mobs and Mazzini took over his power. Catholics did not like this and started looking towards Charles Albert for his brave stand against the Austrians.
In 1849 Victor Emmanuel II, Albert's son became king of Sardinia. Emmanuel was helped in his push for unity by Count Camillo di Cavour. Cavour realized that Italy would need aid from foreign powers so he helped France and Britain in the Crimean War. Sending an army to war was a very wise idea because now they where admitted into the treaty after the war. This also made Sardinia to the other nations in the war.
In 1858 Cavour met with Napoleon III in France and Napoleon III told Cavour that he would aid him if he found his country in war with Austria. Austria declared war with Sardinia in April 1859. Napoleon III withdrew his troops after the defeat of the Austrians because of fear of loss of support back home. He signed a treaty with Austria and Austria agreed to give control of Lombardy to Sardinia but not control of Venetia. In 1859 the province of Romagna over threw there rulers and the new government asked for unity with Sardinia. Cavour gave Savoy and Nice to Napoleon so we would let them unite.
In 1860 Giuseppe Garibaldi gathered people to fight for him and they met in Genoa and from there they set out for Sicily. After his victory in Sicily he set out for Naples...